Giorgos Sakkas

Giorgos Sakkas et al. - Aquaticity in Humans

I was lucky enough to meet and train with Giorgos Sakkas on my Apnea Academy instructor course in Sharm El Sheikh 2008, where he impressed me with his positive attitude in general and his solid understanding of training physiology in particular.

Giorgos is a scientist at heart and a passionate freediver and has put his significant faculties to use in this paper by Danae Varveri, MSc, Christina Karatzaferi, PhD,

Elizana Pollatou, PhD, Giorgos K. Sakkas, PhD on Aquaticity: A discussion of the term and of how it applies to humans.


The relationship between humans and water and the effects on aspects related to

human performance has never been studied scientifically. The aim of the current systematic

review is to attempt to define the term “aquaticity”, present the factors that describe it

and reveal the form in which it presents itself in today’s society, in order to become a distinct

scientific field of study. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted using anec-

dotal reports from the internet and forums as well as scientific articles and books from data-

bases on issues related to aquatic sports.

To the best of our knowledge there are no scientific articles dealing with human’s aquaticity.

In the current systematic review, four factors have been recognized that are closely related to

human aquaticity. Those are related to physical condition in the water, to apnea and ability to

immerse, to mental health and to parameters related to body composition.

According to our findings, “Aquaticity is the capacity of a terrestrial mammalian organism to

function and habitualise in the aquatic environment. The level of aquaticity depends on

mental and physical characteristics and can be improved by frequent exposure to the water

element”. The ideal state of aquaticity is achieved through the activation of the diving reflex,

when the human body is totally immersed in water. The development of knowledge regarding

the aquatic environment leads humans to an improved state of aquaticity.

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